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Academic Papers // Creativity and Public Space Management & Placemaking

1. Doumpa, Vivian // 2012 // Music Performance in Public Space: Changing Perception, Changing Urban Experience?
University of Utrecht, Faculty of Geosciences
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Abstract
Using creative practices such as art and music have become common ways of revitalising and regenerating dead and under-used public spaces in cities. Our research seeks to examine a specific creative practice – that of music performance – and realize its effect on the perceptions and experiences of public space. In order to achieve our research aim, four main attributes have been examined: sense of comfort, sense of community and sociability, accessibility and uses of the public space. In order to negotiate these attributes on a theoretical level, approaches related to the construction of experiences, based on psychogeography, have been used as the cornerstone of the theoretical framework. Empirical work was conducted in the Navarinou Square in Thessaloniki, Greece. Two sets of interviews were conducted: one with the presence of a music group playing in the square, and one with no music present. By analysing the responses of the two groups of interviewees it was possible to reveal the extent to which music in public space affects the perception people have about those attributes of public space. We noticed little difference between the appreciation of the square among the two groups of respondents, a result which largely contradicts existing literature. The most important explanation seems to be significant design and maintenance flaws with the square itself, which limits the potential benefits that music could bring to this specific location. Therefore we argue that using music to enhance the quality of public space must come together with effective public space management.

2. Hartley, Roger // 2012 // Managing high street change through silliness
Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal Vol. 6, 2, 164–171
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Abstract
‘If at first, the idea is not absurd, then there is no hope for it’ is a great quote from an inspirational man who has sown seeds of hope and fear in all of us. Is this true? Who was this man, and should this rationale be applied to the process of regeneration and renewal in the public realm? Other papers have been cross-referenced, and interviews conducted with programmers of outdoor work and Clive Lyttle, who is a combined arts officer for Arts Council England (ACE) (it should be noted that his views do not necessarily reflect those of ACE). The term ‘Street Art’ is used to describe art of different and combined disciplines that is presented for no cost to the audience in the public realm. The economic impact of some street theatre festivals has been researched, examples of best practice provided, lessons learned pointed out and a hypothesis advanced on future potential developments and how applied activity during and after the process of managed regeneration and renewal can increase well-being, create community cohesion and social capital while having a positive economic impact. This paper is of value to practitioners and policy-makers in place marketing and town centre management, local authority economic development officers, business managers, urban regeneration consultants, academics, tourism officers, community leaders and town centre residents.

3. Oakes Steve, Warnaby Gary // 2011 // Conceptualizing the management and consumption of live music in urban space
Marketing Theory 2011 11: 405 - 418
Limited Access here

Abstract
This paper examines how live music performed outdoors contributes to an overall urban servicescape capable of transforming perceptions of urban environments. A broad spectrum of outdoor musical performance is discussed ranging from major festivals to busking. The benefits of live music in urban space are highlighted in terms of benefits to the local economy and widening arts engagement. Key issues are discussed within the context of the wider place marketing literature, and it is proposed that the role of music in the marketing of specifically urban places may be conceptualized in terms of three distinct continua – managed/spontaneous, spectacular/mundane, and exclusive/inclusive. As jazz has been consistently identified as an urban genre, each continuum is discussed with reference to jazz performances within the context of a specific urban space – St. Ann’s Square in Manchester.

4. McMahan, Jane // 1996 // Subway Performance: An Excavation
Journal of Popular Culture 29. 4: 159-180
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Abstract
McMahan discusses two distinguishable types of subway performance, although the borderlines frequently blur: Sanctioned and Unsanctioned performance. Through subway performance, ordinary space and time are transformed into environmental theater and a festivalized performance experience.

5. Simpson, Paul // 2014 // A Soundtrack to the Everyday: Street Music and the Production of Convivial 'Healthy' Public Spaces
Soundscapes of Wellbeing in Popular Music (Book) pp: 159-171, Ashgate
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6. Silberberg, Susan // 2013 // Places in the making: How placemaking builds places and communities
MIT - DUSP
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Abstract
Public places play a key role in building community and placemaking can empower local communities to create a sense of "belonging" through place. A new report by a DUSP research team, led by [#Susan Silberberg], examines the interactions between placemaking, community participation, and the expanding ways communities are collaborating to make great public places.

7. Lofland Lyn H. // 1989 // Social Life in the Public Realm
Journal of Contemporary Ethnography vol. 17 no. 4 453-482
Limited Access here

Abstract
The public realm is defined as those nonprivate sectors or areas of urban settlements in which individuals in co-presence tend to be personally unknown or only categorically known to one another. Through a review of the largely ethnographic literature on the public realm, this article details the relationship between it and other types of social space, argues for the thoroughly social character of what occurs there, and describes some of its characteristic rules and relationships. A concluding section speculates on the possible functions or social uses of the public realm.

8. Carlin, Andrew // 2014 // Working the crowds: Street performances in public spaces
GeoJournal Library Volume 108, 2014, pp 157-169
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Abstract
Cities are not only ‘about’ buildings, shops and businesses. Andrew Carlin investigates the role of street performers in making public spaces. He tracks the continuities in these performances and their function in creating livable city streets.
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